Final Project: Mapping the Remembrance of Jewish Cemeteries in Poland

I first visited Poland during the summer of 2012. The trip was a chance for my mother and I to discover our Polish roots and to find answers to some of our genealogical questions. It was a brief stay, but in the short time we were there I became fascinated with the interactions between Polish and Jewish culture and the way Poles seemed to remember the Jewish past.

Over the course of my undergraduate classes in history and anthropology, I became more and more interested in this topic. I visited Poland once again during the summer of 2015 through a study tour with a memory organization in Lublin, Poland called Brama Grodzka – NN Theatre Centre. This study tour brought me to many incredible places and raised even more questions for me. I returned to college, desperate to find more answers.

My senior thesis focused on the remembrance of Jewish material culture in Poland. I specifically focused on Jewish cemeteries and mezuzah impressions (the marks left on the doorposts from the removal of mezuzot). In order to try to answer questions about memory in Poland, I analyzed the data of over one-thousand Jewish cemeteries in Poland. This data was found through Virtual Shtetl, a group that collects information on Jewish sites in Poland, the Foundation for the Preservation of Jewish Heritage in Poland (FODZ), a group that works to preserve important physical sites of Jewish history and culture in Poland, and from my own travels throughout Poland. One goal of this project was to map the Jewish cemeteries on which I had collected data. In the end, I ran out of time to complete this part of the project.

Through research and examination of the material culture, I made a few conclusions about the memory of Jewish sites and objects in Poland. First, it is possible that “separate memories” of the past exist in the minds of the Polish people. An anthropologist completed a study of one small Polish town and through her interviews she discovered that the Poles in this town see the Polish history of the town and the Jewish history of the town as two separate histories. This anthropologist also suggests that the Jewish history is remembered by Poles as an almost fairytale-like story rather than actual history. I expanded upon this notion in my thesis by arguing that the “separate memories” notion could be the reason why some Jewish sites in Poland are being neglected and forgotten. (For more on this project, see: Wloszycka, Malgorzata. “Neglected Memory: The Recollection of Jews Among Poles. A Case Study of a Town in Southern Poland.” European Judaism 44 (2011): 81-90. Doi: 10.3167/ej.2011.44.02.06)

Specifically for cemeteries, I argue that there still exists a passive memory of these sites in Poles. But many Jewish cemeteries have been destroyed, left neglected, and do not have any forms of active remembrance (i.e., signs, information boards, fencing, cleaning, dedication ceremonies, memorials, etc.). Why is this the case? Why are some places/sites remembered while others are not? Through the “separate memories” theory, people that see Jewish history as separate from their own history will be less likely to act on remembering Jewish sites.

Jewish cemeteries in Poland are actively remembered and actively neglected in many ways. Through my research I established five categories of remembrance for Jewish cemeteries in Poland:

  • Absent (where there are no physical remnants of the cemetery above the surface and the cemetery has not been actively remembered in any way). This category indicates a lack of remembrance towards these site. In my thesis, I argued that the lack of physical markers on these sites might contribute to why there has been no acts of remembrance.
Czerwinsk nad Wisla New Jewish Cemetery Source: Virtual Shtetl
  • Neglected (where cemeteries have physical remnants above ground and have been neglected or destroyed. Many of these sites are overgrown, left in a state of disrepair, or destroyed.) This category also indicates a lack of remembrance. For me, this category is very intriguing. Even though physical remnants of these cemeteries remain, the lack of remembrance signifies that it is not the physical remnants that indicate whether a site will be actively remembered.

Szczebrzeszyn Jewish Cemetery Source: ACurry 2015

  • Altered (where cemeteries have been altered in some way and are no longer used as cemeteries. These sites include cemeteries that have been turned into parks, schools, housing developments, government buildings, playgrounds, gas stations, etc.) These sites now function in completely different ways than their original purpose. This category indicates neither remembrance nor neglect/ignorance. It seems to be a mix of both. While it seems some memory of these sites remain, as many of these sites have memorials to the Jewish cemeteries, this category overall indicates an ability for Poles and Polish society to overlook the Jewish history present in order to function within their own society.

Jozefow nad Wisla Jewish Cemetery Source: Virtual Shtetl. Site is used as a garbage dump today.

  • Memorial (where the only form of remembrance to the cemetery is through a monument or memorial.) This category usually indicates remembrance, where the memorial present identifies the site as being the location of a Jewish cemetery. It is often the case that though there are memorials at these sites, the memorials might mark a completely different event and disregard the Jewish cemetery present. In the site pictured below, the memorial contains plaques commemorating those that died during the war, but is not specific to Jews or to the Jewish cemetery present. The plaques are written in four different languages, including Hebrew. So while these sites mainly reflect remembrance, they also reflect a lack of memory.

Goleniow Jewish Cemetery Source: Virtual Shtetl

  • Remembered (where there exist multiple forms of active remembrance to the cemetery. This can include: cleaning, fencing, memorials/monuments, on-site tours, dedication ceremonies, etc.) These sites indicate remembrance, and often remembrance in multiple ways. In my thesis, I analyzed how these sites are being remembered and who is remembering them. For the most part, these sites are being remembered by Jewish organizations, or Jewish groups that have a connection to the site. Despite remembrance efforts being led by Jewish groups, there are many examples of Poles leading remembrance activities as well. This indicates that some Poles understand, view, and remember this history in a way that makes them feel responsible for it in some manner.

Milejczyce Jewish Cemetery Source: Virtual Shtetl

This class, Introduction to Digital Public Humanities, has given me the opportunity to map the Jewish cemeteries in Poland. The goal of mapping these cemeteries is to understand if there is a spatial reason for the remembrance or neglect of Jewish cemeteries in Poland. Through my senior thesis, I was able to understand the social, anthropological, and psychological reasons behind the remembrance of Jewish cemeteries in Poland. But my analysis lacked a geographical perspective…until now! Thanks to CartoDB, I was able to map data that I have been collecting for over a year.

This link will take you to the interactive version of my general remembrance map. This map is a color-coded map of all of the Jewish cemeteries in Poland that I found data on. The sites are color-coded based on the remembrance of the site. In all, I have mapped 1,124 Jewish cemeteries in Poland. The majority of the sites are actively remembered in some way, but as you can see from the map, there are also many sites that have not been remembered.

Here is another interesting image from the general map of the cemeteries:

This is a heat-density map. It shows where most of the Jewish cemeteries in Poland are located (the red areas) and where there is a lesser density of Jewish cemeteries in Poland (the blue/green areas). This map shows that most of the Jewish cemeteries are centered around southeastern Poland. Though there were Jewish settlements throughout all of Poland, most Jews lived in this southeastern region of Poland. (We also have to remember that the boundaries of Poland changed many times throughout the last one thousand years. But this project is using the modern map of Poland to understand the past). In this way, it makes sense that most of the Jewish cemeteries would be located in this southeastern region of Poland.

Before digging into the remembrance data, I also want to post a time-lapse map of the establishment dates for these cemeteries. The establishment of cemeteries often denotes the establishment of Jewish populations in a specific town or village. This map, though it shows the range of establishment of the cemeteries, also thereby shows the establishment and spread of Jewish communities in Poland.

This first image shows the first step in the time-lapse map. Here we can see one of the first established cemeteries in Poland, the Wroclaw Medieval Jewish Cemetery, established around 1190. From the year 1200 on, we can witness through the time-lapse map the expansion of Jewish communities in Poland.

By 1300, a few more Jewish cemeteries had been established. We can see that there is a cluster of these early cemeteries in western Poland and cluster in eastern/central Poland. This shows the expansion further into Poland, from the west towards central Poland, which would only continue in the coming centuries.

By 1400 C.E., we finally see the expansion into southern Poland and into eastern Poland. The Warsaw Medieval Jewish Cemetery was one of the cemeteries established by 1400, signaling the beginning of a town that would become a center of Jewish life in Poland.

The explosion of Jewish life in Poland would not begin until around 1600 C.E. By this time, Jewish life, specifically in southeastern Poland began to expand fairly rapidly. This image from the time-lapse map further shows the expansion of Jewish communities in Poland, showing that many communities settled in the southeastern region.

The eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were the climax of Jewish expansion in Poland. By 1800 C.E., there are more Jewish cemeteries throughout the entirety of Poland. We also see the first cemeteries in northern Poland during this time.

This image of the time-lapse map shows the Jewish cemeteries present by 1940. This map is fairly precise to the first Remembrance map, as most of the Jewish communities in Poland were destroyed during and after WWII. Very few cemeteries were established post-war, but there were a few. Overall, the time-lapse map is a great way to visualize and portray the settlement of Jewish life in Poland over the last eight hundred years. By viewing this map in motion, we can almost witness the expansion of Jewish communities as it happened.

Back to the remembrance of Jewish cemeteries. I broke down this map into five different maps, one for each category of remembrance.

When I first went through and separated these maps, I couldn’t find many differences between them. For the most part, many of these maps resemble the initial map: it seems most of the sites are in southern Poland, which was true for the initial map showing all of the Jewish cemeteries in Poland. So I decided to look at heat maps instead, to see if those would show more than the regular “dot” maps do.

Sure enough, this type of map was a great way of portraying the remembrance of Jewish cemeteries in Poland. I started again with the Absent category, which includes any cemetery that is not being actively remembered in any way. This map looks very different from initial map of the Absent cemeteries. Here, the Lublin region and a region near Wroclaw are highlighted as the areas with the least amount of remembrance. Also important to note is the absence of sites in the very southern portion of the country and in the regions surrounding Krakow.

The heat map of the neglected cemeteries in Poland shows concentrated regions of neglect in eastern Poland, southern Poland, southwestern Poland, and northwestern Poland. North-central Poland is conspicuously lacking neglected cemeteries.

Cemeteries that have undergone a change in identity have some interesting hot-spots in the heat map. Regions highlighted in this map include Bialystok, Lublin, Rzeszow, and an area outside Lodz. The majority of the Altered Category cemeteries are in the eastern/southeastern part of the country.

Though these maps are all different, many of the concentrated areas of cemeteries reside in southern Poland, where most of the Jewish cemeteries in Poland are located. However, these maps do show slight difference. The map of the neglected cemeteries shows a very concentrated regions of cemeteries northwest of Krakow and other less concentrated regions in central Poland and around Lublin.

Finally, the map of the remembered cemeteries shows intense concentrations of cemeteries in southern and central Poland. The cemeteries that have been actively remembered are centered around Krakow, Warsaw, Lodz, and the very southeastern tip of Poland. This patterning is understandable: Warsaw, Krakow and Lodz are some of the largest towns in Poland, places that still have Jewish communities to this day. It is likely that the remembrance of Jewish cemeteries in this region is due to the Jewish communities and organizations present in these towns.

Conclusions and Final Thoughts:

Mapping the Jewish cemeteries in Poland based on their remembrance did not highlight much new about the remembrance of Jewish cemeteries in Poland. Many of my initial conclusions about how Jewish cemeteries are remembered in Poland are supported by these maps. The cemeteries that are remembered seem to be located near some of the larger cities in Poland, where modern-day Jewish communities are centered, and in southeastern Poland where Jewish life in Poland was centered. It is these Jewish communities and organizations that are completing much of the memory work on these cemeteries.

This project did aide in helping me to visualize the data that I have been collecting. I can now see how heavily saturated the southern area of Poland is with Jewish cemeteries. I could also use the time-lapse feature in CartoDB to visualize the spread of Jewish civilization in Poland throughout the past one-thousand years.

CartoDB was a great tool to use for this project. The most complicated part of the project was editing my spreadsheet to work with CartoDB because my spreadsheet contained so much data. Despite this, working with CartoDB was simple and user-friendly. From the minute I connected my spreadsheet, CartoDB recognized my categories and my data. The work on my end from there on out was very little.

I think CartoDB, though it is a fantastic and simple mapping tool, could expand its possibilities in a few ways. First, I would love if there were a feature to add photos to the data in the maps. As my project was focused on material culture, being able to add pictures to the maps would enhance viewer interaction with the maps. Next, there were certain aspects of working within CartoDB that were repetitive. In order to alter or change a map, you need to re-publish the map to change the features. Even though I was working with much of the same data, I needed to publish six different maps just to show various aspects of the analysis or to change the text overlays.

Overall, this process was fairly straightforward and simple. If I were to continue this project, I would spend more time working with Carto’s various mapping tools. I focused here on the categories tool and the heat map tool, but  better tools to use to understand this data might exist within CartoDB. I would also take some time to overlay certain data in order to better understand how this data interacts. It would be interesting to spend some time with the heat map of remembered cemeteries and overlay “dot” data from the absent and neglected ceremonies to see if there is any overlap. This might help to more deeply understand my data. I hope to work with CartoDB more in the future and gain a better understanding of how this program works.

I will leave this project with a quote from Polish journalist Anna Bikont on the memory of a small town in Poland:

“Polish truth. Jewish truth. It’s obvious to many residents that there are two separate truths here.”

(Bikont, Anna. The Crime and the Silence: Confronting the Massacre of Jews in Wartime Jedwabne. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2015. pg 140).

 

 

Social Media Strategy

My project for this course will be mapping of Jewish cemeteries in Poland. Specifically, my research focuses on how Jewish material culture (cemeteries, synagogues, mezuzot, mikvot, etc) are being remembered in Poland (if they are actually being remembered at all).

I have previously collected data on these cemeteries and compiled this data into a spreadsheet. I am working on editing the spreadsheet to make it compatible with CartoDB and then I will be able to map.

A social media presence would enable me to share the results of my project with historians/anthropologists, museums, and other digital humanities projects/scholars. I’d hope that this could spark discussions on this subject matter and suggestions on how I could further this research.

The best method for sharing my mapping project would be to create a blog specifically for this project. I could see myself sharing not only my maps on remembrance, but also interesting information or stories that I have discovered while researching these Jewish cemeteries.

My hope for this project on memory is to contribute to the ongoing discussions on memory. Many of the complications in Polish-Jewish relations are due to this issue of remembrance: how do Poles remember the Jewish population of Poland? My research on Jewish material culture in Poland, which is ongoing, might provide new insights into the world of Polish-Jewish relations.

Success would be measured based on views/interactions on the blog. I would want to project my blog by connecting it with my other social media accounts in order to increase views and communicate with other organizations working on similar subjects.

One of my main goals for completing this mapping project is to eventually write a paper about it. Then I could expand my research towards other types of Jewish material culture in Poland. Social media is a great way to connect with others that are working on similar projects. I am looking forward to starting a social media presence about my work and then possibly expanding not only my research but also the social media presence on it.

Crowdsourcing

Crowdsourcing is a way of obtaining information by enlisting the help of others, specifically Internet users.

Many digital humanities groups or organizations use crowdsourcing to aid in their projects. Oftentimes, these groups find themselves with limited resources – rather that be money or physical hands to work on the project. In these cases, they reach out to the public for help.

The most well-known example of crowdsourcing is Wikipedia. Wikipedia is a free, online encyclopedia on which users can contribute to the entries on their own accord. Wikipedia has become a top search site, a place that people around the world can use and also contribute to. It has a reputation in the academic world, as students have turned towards Wikipedia as a source for research but since it’s a user-contributed platform, teachers do not consider Wikipedia to be a satisfactory research source. Regardless, Wikipedia is an important crowdsourcing project, which has proven that crowdsourcing can work.

Wikipedia isn’t the only crowdsourcing project out there – in fact, there are many digital humanities projects running that utilize crowdsourcing. These projects utilize the public in a variety of ways. Transcribe Bentham is a crowdsourcing platform for transcribing the papers of Jeremy Bentham. The public can log on to the site, view digitized documents from the Bentham papers and then transcribe the papers for the project. Transcription is one tool which crowdsourcing is useful for.

An interesting and unique type of crowdsourcing project is the New York Public Library’s Building Inspector. The public can inspect the maps and let the NYPL know whether their map inspection software has worked. This project is very cool – it works like a puzzle and gets the users captivated in the work. Below is a screenshot from the project: users view the computer-projected outline and then tell the software whether it has correctly outlined the building or not. Contributors can also add descriptions to maps that will identify different types of buildings.

screen-shot-2016-11-30-at-9-11-28-pm

In order to attract contributors, projects need to be engaging – their interface and design need to be user-friendly and the subject matter needs to appeal. An interesting example of a recent crowdsourcing project is from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. The museum has asked people around the United States to search for information on how America reacted to news of the Holocaust by searching the headlines of newspapers from their town. Schools around the United States are picking up this project and encouraging their students to aid in the newspaper search. This is a unique project, but other digital humanities projects could learn from this project and other well-attended projects.

Crowdsourcing projects can run into trouble if they are not user-friendly or their subject matter does not appeal to the public. Digital humanists need to be wary of this and understand the limits of their projects. Crowdsourcing projects are reliant on the public and therefore need to understand the public.

 

 

 

Reading Wikipedia

I’ve been taught from a young age to be skeptical of Wikipedia – and so I always am. And though I am always skeptical, Wikipedia is still a go-to for quick, basic information – I tend to assume that people know and post accurate information on these subjects.

With that being said, there are many ways to question a Wikipedia article to get more out of it. If you want to really understand an article on Wikipedia, you can use tools on the page to delve into the process of the page’s creation.

First: Scan the page for its organization. See how it’s divided and what the sections are.  If you know anything about this topic, do the subjects given provide a holistic view of the topic? Is anything missing?

Second: Read the page. Note when you have questions, or if you find some piece of information to be wrong. How might you right this article differently if you were an editor?

Third: Note any and all citations. Are there citations in the article? If there are citations, what is being cited? What kinds of references are being used? Are they scholarly or not?

Fourth: Search and scan the edit history. You can do this by clicking the “View History” tab at the top of the webpage. This page will show you all of the edits made to this page and who made them.  How has the page changed over time? Who are the primary contributors? Can you find out any information about them? Are they reliable editors? Would they have any bias in editing this article? You can also search the edits by editor to see all of their edits on the page. Is there a topic they focus on specifically?

Fifth: Find out what sections have been most contested on the page by clicking on the “Talk” heading at the top left of the page. You can view discussions between editors on aspects of the page. On what topics do they conflict the most?

If you’re primarily using Wikipedia for quick and basic information, you may find this to be not helpful. But if you want to better understand the information you’re reading on Wikipedia, there are many tools you can use to get a better understanding of the page. Experiment with these tools – the information you can gain is never ending.

Comparing Tools

In this post, I will compare three tools we learned during this session: Voyant, CartoDB, and Palladio.

Voyant was a text analysis tool, which allows users to analyze word and word usage from documents in a variety of ways. There are some bugs in this program which made it difficult to use. Despite these bugs, it allows for very careful text analysis and a variety of methods with which to analyze documents.

CartoDB is a mapping software that is incredibly easy to use. Not only is it easy to use, but it allows for many different ways to visualize your data. This tool visualizes geographic relationships in data.

Finally, there is Palladio, a tool which allows users to visualize relationships and correlations within data through a network. Unlike CartoDB, Palladio allows for visualizing relationships other than geographic relationships. You can pick specific aspects of your data and Palladio will show you the relationships between them.

All of these tools are useful but for a variety of reasons. While all three are used for visualizing relationships, they are used for different purposes. For those interested in understanding language in their data, Voyant would be the better tool. Those that want to understand geographic or spatial relationships should use CartoDB. And those that want to visualize relationships beyond the spatial should use Palladio.

But no one says you have to pick just one! All three tools are incredibly useful for humanities studies. Put together, you could come to understand your data from many different aspects, creating a holistic view of your data.

Networks with Palladio

Palladio is a tool used to visualize networks. Networks are an important subject matter for the humanities, as humanities scholars ask many questions about relationships and correlations. Using digital tools, such as Palladio, visualizing networks, relationships, and correlations has never been easier.

You start by importing your data. Palladio then allows you to easily link your data to create relationships. We continued to use the data from the ex-slave interviews for this tool.

You then can create a graph. In order to make the graph, you need to pick which two facets of your data you’d like to show the relationship between. For example, we used the aspects “topic” and “state where enslaved”, or “age” and “topic”, or “interviewer” and “topic.” Of course, the options are almost endless!

Here’s an example of one graph, where I chose Male/female aspect and topic of interview to correlate:

screen-shot-2016-11-02-at-9-59-06-pm

You can also manipulate the graph however you want. Each of the orbs can be dragged into a desired position.

This is a useful tool for studying networks. From the many readings on network visualizations we read before working with Palladio, it seems that other network visualization tools are more difficult to use. In order to use Palladio, you do need a guide on how to start if you are new to this sort of program. It is not the most clear site, but with a guide, it would be fairly simple to make your own network graphs.

Mapping with CartoDB

I have had some previous experience working with mapping tools – mainly ArcGIS and QGIS. Those experiences made digital mapping seem exhaustive, difficult, and tedious. CartoDB is quite different – opposite of my experiences with the GIS software.

CartoDB allows anyone with data to be able to map it easily and efficiently. Again, as long as you have a dataset, CartoDB is fairly easy and straight-forward to use. Our dataset for this project was information from a collection of interviews from former slaves. When first uploaded, the map created was simple. It shows the location of each interview. You can also go in and alter the information shown, so that by clicking on the data, a user can see a glimpse of the information about that point.

slavenarrativemap1image

There are many ways you can utilize CartoDB to alter the information shown through your map.

Intensity – this map feature shows the intensity of the locations of your data through colored dots (as shown below).

slavenarrativeintensitymap

You can also show intensity through a heat map, which integrates the location data (as shown below).

slavenarrativeheatmap

Another way to view data is through the Categories option. Through this, I could view the data by slave “type.” The map shows this information by coordinating colors to they types of slaves discussed throughout the interviews. An example of this is shown below.

slavenarrativescategorymap

CartoDB is free to use on the web! Again, I found this program easy to use and user-friendly, especially when compared to other well-known mapping programs. For anyone that wants to use a mapping program, I suggest CartoDB. I am excited to further explore this program with my project for this semester.

 

Working with Voyant

This was my first experience using a text analysis tool. Overall, I think Voyant seems to be a great tool to use for text analysis for a variety of reasons. First, it is available online and its graphs can be pulled up through URL’s. This tool is also great because of the multiple forms of text analysis it provides.

On the Voyant main screen (once you’ve uploaded your documents) you’ll find five different screens, each with a different purpose. Cirrus shows a word cloud of the most widely used words in the documents. By using the Reader screen, you can read through some of the documents and spot specific terms in each. Trends puts this data into graph form, which can be manipulated to plot the data in multiple ways. There is also a section which shows the most distinctive words from each document, under the heading “Summary.” Finally, you can pick a word to examine and see the words that come immediately before and after the chosen word – this is the screen called Contexts.

This program allows for one to produce fascinating insights on word usage and correlations for humanities research. There are some issues with this program, however. The web format of Volant seems to be very glitchy. I had to start over numerous times because it would not show a particular graph or the program would get stuck. This was fairly frustrating to deal with so hopefully these issues could be fixed as the program gets updated.

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Figure 1: Screenshot of main page in Voyant.

 

Metadata Review

Metadata Review of the Antique Map Resource Database (oldmaps.com)

The metadata on this site describes the following about the maps:

  • Creator
  • Subject
  • Period
  • Size
  • Condition
  • Source
  • References
  • Pricing Information

The metadata allows for questions on its creation, value, and location. It does not allow for questions on the recent history of the map, where it resided and who used it since its creation.

Database Review

This post is a review of a database in the George Mason Library system.

Antique Map Price Record

Overview: The Antique Map Price Record is a collection of around 200,000 maps with the purpose of serving as an encompassing survey of antique maps. There is even a plan to create yet another guidebook of this database and redesign the website to have more advanced search features and many other new features.

Search: Searching this site is possible through many means. One can search by title words, mapmaker, subject, descriptions, company, regions, dates, and even map dimensions.

Facts:

  • Date Range: c.1200-1979
  • Publisher: Originally published by David Jolly in 1983. Published on the web by Curt and Marti of Old Maps, LLC.
  • Publisher About Page: http://www.oldmaps.com.mutex.gmu.edu/ampr.asp
  • Object Type: Maps
  • Full-Type Searchable: No, but searchable by subject matter, title and cartographer

History/Provenance: This database was first created as a guide for antique map collectors in 1983. In 2002 this guide was converted into from the guide to a digital CD-rom format. Today, this database is on the web, searchable in many formats.

  • Original Catalog: Antique Maps, Sea Charts, City Views, Celestial Charts & Battle Plans – Price Guide and Collectors’ Handbook by David C. Jolly (1983)

Access: Check libraries for their subscription to this database. The book format can also be purchased for $75.00.

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